Organisational Behaviour


Organisations around the world have personnel that are from different cultural backgrounds; thus, they have unique personal attributes, which determine the performance outcomes of firms. In fact, conceptualisation of the lives of organisations is one of the roles of managers since they understand that they can remarkably improve outcomes by applying the principles that are founded on organisational theory. From an organisational perspective, the organisational theory is characterised by a collection of thematic approaches, questions, and leadership modes that are critical to the management of workers. Although it has been argued that the theory is made up of many levels of heterogeneity and counterclaims, there is a consensus among practitioners that it aims at supporting supervisory styles and organisational cultures. In this paper, it is critical to focus on the organisational culture that concentrates on the cultural attributes of a firm. The model hypotheses that firms could be typified by “cultural dimensions, such as values, symbols, rituals, and beliefs. To understand the approach, it is important to consider three ranks of organisational culture that should be harmony with each with the goal of avoiding tension within firms. The levels are artifacts and behaviours, espoused values and shared basic assumptions. In case the shared values of workers are not consistent with the overall espoused values, then there is a very high likelihood that tension would occur. Thus, organisational effectiveness can be identified by studying typologies of firms. This paper adopts the organisational theory and framework in the organisational overview, literature review, analysis, and conclusion and recommendations. In addition, it offers the statement of the problem in relation to the firm in the case study.

Organisation Overview

Success Academy is a secondary school that is located in the eastern part of Nigeria. The organisation was founded in 1972 with the goal of enabling many students access education that would help them to secure places institutions of higher learning and/or become self-reliant in life. In terms of numbers, it is the second most populous school in the nation. Specifically, it has a student population of 700 students and 30 lecturers. Both teachers and students are from different cultural backgrounds, indicating that the secondary school is typified by unique levels of cultural heterogeneity. In addition to different cultures, the population in the organisation is characterised by many religious orientations, although the majorities are Christians and Muslims.

The organisational structure of the secondary school in designed in a manner that promotes a culture of hard work and offer students and teachers a chance to achieve their goals in the short-term and long-term. The principal is oversees all operations in the organisation. He is the secretary of the board of governors, which is responsible for making critical decisions for improving outcomes. In addition, the board approves projects that are proposed by other stakeholders in the learning facility, such as teachers and parents. The principal is also a link between the management and parents. This makes communication very effective. The deputy principal performs duties that are delegated by his senior manager in the school. For effective operations of the ten departments, the school principal appoints lecturers to head departments on the basis of their experiences and academic qualifications. The HODs may report directly to the principal or the deputy principal. Student leaders are elected with the goal organising their fellow learners on the behalf of lecturers for effective learning.

Statement of the problem

The school's principal is a moody leader and workers have often complained about his hostile way of handling them. For example, he does not listen to them even when they try to explain they are wrong. As a result, the school's performance outcomes have significantly declined in the recent past. When personnel are at work, they feel discouraged to perform their duties since they think that they would be despised by their leader even when they have taught their classes effortlessly with the goal of achieving unique targets. In addition, a group of female personnel in the organisation does not cooperate in the work settings, a fact that is attributed to the leadership style of the principal. In this context, it is notable that the environment is not results-oriented. However, two female lecturers have been suspected of feeding the leader with rumours and other false information in regards to the conduct of their colleagues. In the recent past, some male teachers were so bitter with the fact that the principal could not allow them to participate in interschool competitions with the neighbouring institutions of learning. They argued that such activities would help the personnel to appreciate each other on the basis of cultural diversity and uniqueness. In addition, they felt that student competitions with those from other schools could help them to improve their interpersonal communication. Neither is the organisational cultural support nor is the leadership committed to motivating lecturers in the learning facility. There is a consensus among lecturers that the principal should be transferred so that the school may improve and regain its glorious performance, with which it was associated in the past. They have vowed to report the matter to the area managers of education. They will incite parents to kick him out. In fact, they are not afraid of any disciplinary actions against them, such as interdiction by the authorities. From the case study, instead of the leader creating a conducive environment for learning and working, he is too moody and hostile to support unique learning outcomes. Being moody and hostile signifies negative behaviours that have the potential to jeopardise working relationships. In the secondary school, the leader has not provided the workers with psychologically safe surroundings in which to complete professional roles and responsibilities. Therefore, it can be argued that the school can hardly meet its performance targets. Lecturers in the institution feel that their roles are quite demanding since they are not offered an opportunity to work without fear. The leader has not been effective in directing his juniors to achieve the set goals; thus, it would be important to use different models and approaches to comprehending organisational behavior and theory, which would be critical to improving outcomes in the long-term and short-term. Briefly, the school is facing three types of issues. First, colleagues in the organisation are not focused on working in harmony with the goal of achieving common goals. It appears that cultural influence is negatively impacting the lecturers, making females and males work in different groups although in the same workplace. Second, there is the issue of change leadership whereby the workers feel that they are being oppressed by the principal who is very hostile and moody. Third, there is the issue of misunderstanding that arise from various cultural differences among the lecturers. Unless the staffs realise that they cannot achieve their common goals using cultural differences, they will always perform dismally in their school.

Literature review

Many studies could be utilised to analyse the case study and provide critical conclusions. Counterproductive work behaviour concentrates on personal traits and perceptions of workers that increase or decrease performance outcomes. The authors suggest that leaders should adopt a multilevel approach to testing CWB antecedents that are apparent within an organisation. In the context of firms, many workers may feel that they are not supported by the current organisational structures to discharge their roles. Thus, they develop counterproductive traits to oppose those in leadership. The authors of the article propose that prudent management of talent should focus on a clear comprehension of the extent to which workers may improve or disrupt good performance trends of their firms.

Another study highlight the various ways in which personnel may act to show their dissatisfaction with the management. It is evident that some female workers are not cooperating since they feel oppressed. Although they may not be exhibiting an ethical and pro—organisational cultural traits, they may be acting unethically to benefit the school. The authors contend that positive social exchanges and identifications could result in unethical pro-organisational behaviour by causing neutralisation. The approach ensures that the moral aims of personnel in the workplace are overlooked. The authors conclude that both situational and individual constructs of relationships should be considered since they could lead to implications for managers and workers. Tan and Waheed examine the motivation factors that could be applied to improve outcomes of personnel in the retail sector. The study utilises Herzberg's hygiene factors and motivators. The leading factors were in relation to working conditions since they significantly motivated workers to improve their sales in the short-term. Other factors were recognition of their seniors, company policy, and wages. However, the authors suggest that there is the need to study why salespersons attach a high level of importance between job satisfaction and wages. They assumed that workers who received a salary increase could be more satisfied with their jobs than those who did not.

Another approach to organisational culture is related to group affect within a firm. Groups of workers that play their roles in harmony could have unique overall outcomes in comparison with those that do not perform their tasks together. However, this is strongly dependent on the affective context and compositions of the groups. The focus of the study by the authors was to establish the impact of group affect on personal attitudes and group-based outcomes. They concluded that group affect is associated with many emotions and work-based factors, which led them to request for further research in the area.

The behaviour exhibited by the principal is akin to militarisation that is common in many schools in Africa, Nigeria being one of them. Khanani explores how many schools, in Africa, are not creating surroundings that can help the personnel to understand their rights and responsibilities. To many education leaders, being military helps them to control and dictate workers who might rebel against them if such measures are not adopted. The author notes that such leadership styles in the education sector are typified by organisational cultures and modes that are not keen on improving outcomes in the future by motivating workers. On the other hand, they focus on discouraging workers with the intention of intimidating them in the long-term. For example, the attitude of being moody and hostile is a negative approach to leading juniors in the workplace. It could be critical to note that lecturers are exemplified by low levels of creativity and commitment to achieving their personal and group goals. That notwithstanding, cultural traits of workers should be considered when designing effective learning institutions that would have positive impacts in the future. Organisations that have workers from different cultural backgrounds have the opportunity to outdo others since they can turn the cultural aspect into merits. That leaders should reconsider their stand on their cultural assumptions since they can help them to improve affect-based trust with their juniors. Chua and colleagues designed three experiments that aimed at achieving unique goals. The first experiment established that leaders with high cultural intelligence (CQ) could easily collaborate with those from other organisations. The second experiment was based on a social network survey and it found that managers with relatively low levels of CQ could hardly form relationships with their peers and juniors; thus, their firms were shown to have lower performance levels. The third experiment involved the participation of workers from different cultures in the same activities in the workplace. It was established that the more diverse the cultures were, the better the outcomes for many groups. In both experiments 2 and 3, CQ was critical to supporting creative collaboration and improving outcomes. In this context, the role of many cultures cannot be overemphasised in the workplace. As a result, managers should be thankful for having workers from different cultures since their firms would outdo their rivals in the short-term and long-term. Many studies in management and OB have often concentrated on deciphering individual variations, which could help managers to score well in terms of intercultural interactions. One of the assumptions about this scope is that intercultural success accumulates when people mind about others’ cultural orientations when they are working together to attain common or unique goals in the end. Cross-cultural relationships are founded on the platform of sharing knowledge and insights into comprehending various organisational issues.

Behavioural issues of teachers could negatively impact students’ study outcomes and psychological health. For example, when teachers are fearful at the workplace, they are not psyched to perform and help their students. In fact, they just go to teach so that their leaders cannot reprimand them. In such situations of the lack of organisational support, there are high levels of stereotyped teaching. The authors argue that the organisational control approach is critical to preventing and correcting teachers’ behavioural issues, which could have long-lasting negative impacts.


Leadership change for principal

For the leader of the organisation to improve working conditions and learning outcomes, he should be ready to change based on the situational leadership framework. Instead of being moody and hostile to lecturers, he should use the framework to direct and support his juniors. Being directive implies that a leader can tell his or her subordinates how and why to perform some tasks with the goal of attaining specific targets. Being supportive implies that a leader can listen to his or her juniors and provide them with high levels of support and encouragement in all situations in the workplace. The principal can also use the Framework for Leadership to bring changes. Michael Fullan observes that the model could be applied to transform business and educational enterprises. The framework is typified by moral purpose and a clear comprehension of change. In this context, the moral purpose would mean making a positive change among workers and students, which would last long. Understanding change would make the principal deal with any resistance from the lecturers and transform the workplace.

Uncooperative working colleagues/culture influence

It appears that the lecturers are divided into groups based on their gender, which could be determined by their cultural orientations. To ensure harmony in the workplace, the McKinsey 7-S Framework should be utilised. In the settings, the leader should analyse strategies, structures, systems, skills, staff, shared values, and styles of workers in the school. The framework could be applied to comprehend how the mentioned elements are related to each other. This would ensure that the issues that lead to disharmony among workers in the organisation would be taken into consideration.

Misunderstanding arising from cultural differences

On the basis of different cultural backgrounds of the lecturers in Success Academy, the workplace is typified by many cases of misunderstanding. In fact, even people from the same cultural context are likely to have cultural misunderstanding. The principal may aim at utilising the mediation framework to resolve cultural misunderstanding. This framework would be used by senior teachers and HODs to resolve misunderstanding at the departmental level. This would prevent cultural misunderstanding issues from spreading from one section to another.

Conclusion and recommendations

In conclusion, it has been shown that organisation theory and OB are applied to achieve the desired outcomes in organisations. In the modern world, firms are social units that are typified by persons from many cultural backgrounds. Cultural heterogeneity is a useful aspect that managers can use to motivate their juniors and promote collaborations among other institutions.

In the case of Success Academy, some recommendations would be key to ensuring that the lecturers are motivated well to produce excellent outcomes. First, the lecturers should be encouraged by giving them a chance to express their views in a better environment that does not have issues of hostility and moodiness. Second, they should be encouraged that working together as a team would bring better outcomes. This implies that they should not use cultural differences to outdo each other in the workplace. Third, the principal should attend a management course that would equip him with excellent managerial skills. The course would, for example, let him know that being hostile and moody leads to poor work outcomes. Fourth, the organisation should only consider changing the principal if he is not keen on changing his leadership style. For example, after attending the proposed management course he should initiate changes, failure to which the organisation should initiative the processing of transferring him.

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